MUSIC 127B LISTENING LIST ANTHONY DAVIS
BE-BOP: CHARLIE PARKER AND DIZZY GILLESPIE
COMPOSITION COMPOSER ALBUM OR CD ARTIST
1. GROOVIN' HIGH (1945) - Dizzy Gillespie (1945) DIZZY GILLESPIE SEXTET with Charlie Parker, alto saxophone, Clyde Hart, piano, Remo Palmieri, guitar, Slam Stewart, bass and Cozy Cole, drums, Charlie Parker the Complete Savoy and Dial Studio Recordings, CD 1, track 13, MUD 74734.
This is an early collaboration with Charlie Parker with Clyde Hart on piano, Remo Palmieri on guitar, Slam Stewart on bass and Cozy Cole on drums. The other performers besides Parker and Gillespie are not Be-Boppers. They play in a more conventional swing style. The virtuosity and harmonic invention of Bird and Diz stand in sharp relief against the accompaniment. The tune Groovin' High is based on the harmonic progression of Whispering, a standard tune. Gillespie shines here in all registers, a true trumpet virtuoso and successor to Louis Armstrong. Slam Stewart contributes an arco bass solo with singing accompaniment in unison. Slam Stewart was the bass player with the Art Tatum Trio.
2. INTERLUDE (NIGHT IN TUNISIA) (1944) - Dizzy Gillespie
DIZZY GILLESPIE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMERICAN ARTIST 1940-1946
SARAH VAUGHAN MU 8429
This is an early incarnation of Night in Tunisia, Dizzy Gillespie's classic composition. This version features Sarah Vaughan who sang with the Billy Eckstine Band with Dizzy Gillespie. The band includes Dizzy Gillespie on trumpet, Aaron Sachs on clarinet, Don Byas on tenor saxophone, Leonard Feather on piano?, Chuck Wayne on guitar, Jack Lesberg on bass and Morey Feld on drums.
3. SALT PEANUTS (1945) - Dizzy Gillespie – Kenny Clarke DIZZY GILLESPIE ALL STAR QUINTET with Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet, Charlie Parker, alto saxophone, Al Haig, piano, Curly Russell, bass and Sid Catlett, drums, SAME, CD 1, track 16, MUD 74734.
This Be-Bop classic features Charlie Parker on alto saxophone, Dizzy Gillespie on trumpet, Al Haig on piano, Curly Russell on bass and Sid Catlett on drums. The piece features explosive solos by Parker and Gillespie in a playful tune. The piece is conceived in a 32 bar form with I"ve Got Rhythm changes.
4. BLOOMDIDO (1950) Charlie Parker THE COMPLETE CHARLIE PARKER ON VERVE, Disc 4 CHARLIE PARKER MUD 38750
This is a classic blues composition by Charlie Parker with Dizzy Gillespie on trumpet, Thelonious Monk on piano, Curly Russell on bass and Buddy Rich on drums. Thelonious Monk was one of the original creators of Be-Bop in Minton's in the early forties. He was still considered an eccentric outsider in the Bop scene although his artistry was certainly appreciated by Parker and Gillespie. Charlie Parker was an original composer within the short forms of blues and 32 bar tunes. His compositions have the character of the improvisation. There is no separation in style.
5. STAR EYES (1950) Don Raye CHARLIE PARKER QUARTET BIRD: THE COMPLETE CHARLIE PARKER ON VERVE, VOL. 1, CD 4, track 7, MUD 38750.
This demonstrates Charlie Parker's uniquely lyrical approach to standards. The piece begins with one of Bird's introductions and moves into a rhythmically free statement of the melody. Charlie Parker's mastery of rhythm and phrasing is evident. This band included Hank Jones on piano, Ray Brown on bass and Buddy Rich on drums.
6. KOKO - Charlie Parker Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz, vol. III
CHARLIE PARKER MUD 35016 v.3
This is Charlie Parker's masterpiece built on the changes of the tune Cherokee with Dizzy Gillespie on trumpet and piano, Curly Russell on bass and Max Roach on drums. Charlie Parker was famous for negotiating the changes of Cherokee at break neck tempos. This composition is unusual because it does not directly relate to the form of the improvisation and employs trading of fours in the head. The improvisation on Cherokee is in a 32 bar form.
7. EMBRACEABLE YOU (take 1 and 2) (1947) - George Gershwin
Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz, vol. III CHARLIE PARKER
MUD 35016 v.3
These are two masterful solos by Charlie Parker on the Gershwin classic. Notice his independence of the melody and his endless melodic invention. He articulates the harmony with incredible nuance and displays his rhythmic flexibility. The group includes Miles Davis on trumpet (not heard), Duke Jordan on piano, Tommy Potter on bass and Max Roach on drums.
8. SHE ROTE (cut 4) (1951) - Charlie Parker CHARLIE PARKER QUARTET BIRD: THE COMPLETE CHARLIE PARKER ON VERVE,vol. 2, CD 6, track 4
This improvisation on this compostion is built on the harmonic progression of Beyond the Blue Horizon a 32 bar tune. The band includes Miles Davis on trumpet, Walter Bishop, Jr. on piano, Teddy Kotick on bass and Max Roach on drums. Parker takes a masterful solo here with incredible virtuosity. Notice the striking contrast of Miles Davis' solo which negotiates a smaller more restricted register but still is as complex in its harmonic conception.
9. AU PRIVAVE (cut 2) (1951) - Charlie Parker SAME, vol. 2, CD 6, track 2
This is a 12 bar blues composition featuring the same ensemble as the previous selection. Miles Davis' attack reminds the listener of Clifford Brown's later style. Miles was featured in the Charlie Parker Quintet earlier in the forties in one of the most important groups of the Be-Bop period.
10. NOW'S THE TIME (1953) - Charlie Parker CHARLIE PARKER’S REBOPPERS with Charlie Parker, alto saxophone, Miles Davis, trumpet, Sadik Hakim, piano, Curly Russell, bass and Max Roach, drums Charlie Parker the Complete Savoy and Dial Studio Recordings, CD 1, track 22,
11. CONFIRMATION (cut 11) (1953) - Charlie Parker CHARLIE PARKER QUARTET with Al Haig, piano, Curly Russell, bass and Max Roach, drums BIRD: THE COMPLETE CHARLIE PARKER ON VERVE, vol. 3, CD 10, track 11 MUD 38750.
This composition is created on original harmonic progression rare in Parker's work. He usually built his compositions either on blues progressions or the harmonies of standard tunes. This piece has a 32 bar AABA form. The ensemble is the same as on the previous selection. Parker negotiates the changes of Confirmation with his incredible fluency.
1. ROBBIN’S NEST (1947) Illinois Jacquet and Sir Charles Thompson (arranged by Gil Evans) CLAUDE THORNHILL ORCHESTRA, solos by Claude Thornhill, piano, Danny Polo, clarinet and Mickey Folus, tenor saxophone GIL EVANS 1042-1947, track 7, MUD 62802
2. DONNA LEE (1947) Miles Davis, arranged by Gil Evans, SAME with solos by Claude Thornhill, piano, Tak Tavorian, trombone, Mickey Folus, tenor saxophone and Barry Galbraith, guitar, SAME, track 11, MUD 62802
3. YARDBIRD SUITE (1947) Charlie Parker, arranged by Gil Evans, SAME with solos by Claude Thornhill, piano, Lee Konitz, alto saxophone, Louis Mucci, trumpet and Barry Galbraith, guitar, SAME, track 12, MUD 62802.
4. FOCUS (1949) Tadd Dameron TADD DAMERON TEN with Miles Davis, trumpet, J.J. Johnson, trombone, Shabib Shihab, alto saxophone, Benjamin Lundy, tenor saxophone, Cecil Payne, baritone saxophone, Tadd Dameron, piano, John Collins, guitar, Curley Russell, bass and Kenny Clarke, drums, MILES DAVIS FIRST RECORDINGS: THE COMPLET MASTER TAKES, CD 2, track 8, MUD 74637.
5. MOVE (1949) Denzil Best (arranged by John Lewis) MILES DAVIS NONET with Miles Davis, trumpet, Kai Winding, trombone, Junior Collins, French horn, John Barber, tuba, Lee Konitz, alto saxophone, Gerry Mulligan, baritone saxophone, Al Haig, piano, Joe Shulman, bass and Max Roach, drums BIRTH OF THE COOL, track 1,
This is an arrangement by pianist John Lewis on the legendary nonet recording of Miles Davis. The instrumentation includes trumpet, trombone, french horn, tuba, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone, piano, bass and drums. The solos are by Miles Davis on trumpet and Lee Konitz on the alto saxophone. Do you notice the Monk quote in the arrangement.
6. JERU (1949) Gerry Mulligan (arranged by Gerry Mulligan) SAME, track 2.
This is an arrangement by Gerry Mulligan. Notice the shift in meter to 3/4 in the bridge or B section. The solos however follow a normal 32 bar AABA form. Solos are by Miles Davis and Gerry Mulligan on baritone saxophone
7. MOON DREAMS (1950) Johnny Mercer (arranged by Gil Evans)
MILES DAVIS NONET with Miles Davis, trumpet, J.J. Johnson, trombone, Gunther Schuller, French Horn, John Barber, tuba, Lee Konitz, alto saxophone, Gerry Mulligan, baritone saxophone, Al McKibbon, bass and Max Roach, drums, SAME, track 3.
This is an unusual ballad arrangement by Gil Evans, chief unofficial arranger of the nonet. Notice the extended form and colors that would characterize future collaborations with Miles Davis. There is no piano on this composition and no real solos.
8. DECEPTION (1950) Miles Davis (arranged by Miles Davis and Gil Evans) MILES DAVIS NONET with Miles Davis, trumpet, J.J. Johnson, trombone, Gunther Schuller, French Horn, John Barber, tuba, Lee Konitz, alto saxophone, Gerry Mulligan, baritone saxophone, Al McKibbon, bass and Max Roach, drums, track 6.
This is an early composition and arrangement by Miles Davis. Notice the use of pedal point and the hint of Davis’ later modal explorations. Solos are by Miles Davis and J.J. Johnson on trombone.
9. BOPLICITY (1949) Miles Davis and Gil Evans (arranged by Miles Davis and Gil Evans) MILES DAVIS NONET with Miles Davis, trumpet, J. J. Johnson, trombone, Sandy Siegelstein, French Horn, John Barber, tuba, Lee Konitz, alto saxophone, Gerry Mulligan, baritone saxophone, John Lewis, piano, Nelson Boyd, bass and Kenny Clarke, drums SAME, track 8.
This piece is actually composed by Miles Davis. Cleo Henry is Miles Davis’ mother’s name. The arrangement is by Gil Evans. The piece employs a 32 bar form with an AABA structure. Notice how well integrated are the notated lines and the improvisation. They seem to flow naturally one into the other. The solos are by Gerry Mulligan, followed by an interlude, Miles Davis, and pianist John Lewis.
10. ISRAEL (1949) John Carisi (arranged by John Carisi) SAME, track 10.
6. SUB-CONSCIOUS LEE -Lee Konitz LENNIE TRISTANO - Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz MUD 35016 v.4
This composition by Lee Konitz is based on the changes of What is this Thing Called Love? Notice the straight rhythms and the lack of vibrato or blues feeling. Pianist Lennie Tristano was noted for his melodic interplay and was a great influence on pianists like Bill Evans. Lennie Tristano, piano, Lee Konitz, alto saxophone, Billy Bauer, guitar, Arnold Fishkin, bass and Shelly Manne, drums.
11. DJANGO -John Lewis DJANGO MODERN JAZZ QUARTET
This is a masterpiece of balance of compositional and improvisational elements from 1954. This work by John Lewis is a portrait of the Gypsy guitarist, Django Reinhardt. Notice the ease of the transitions from almost classical simplicity to the directness of the blues with Milt Jackson, vibraphone, John Lewis, piano, Percy Heath, bass and Kenny Clarke, drums.
12. STRANGE MEADOWLARK -Dave Brubeck TIME OUT
DAVE BRUBECK MU 10711
This is a ballad by pianist Dave Brubeck. Notice the awareness of form with the piano alone followed by the rhythm section and the alto saxophone with Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, Dave Brubeck, piano, Eugene Wright, bass and Joe Morello, drums.
13.TAKE FIVE -Paul Desmond SAME
This piece by Paul Desmond is in a 5/4 meter. This is not the first time unusual time signatures were employed in jazz. Max Roach in his arrangement of Love is a Many Splendored Thing anticipates this recording by almost ten years.
14. MY FUNNY VALENTINE (1952) Rodgers-Hart GERRY MULLIGAN QUARTET with Chet Baker, trumpet, Gerry Mulligan, baritone saxophone, Carson Smith, bass and Chico Hamilton, drums GERRY MULLIGAN QUARTET, track 7
15. MY FUNNY VALENTINE (1954) Rodgers-Hart CHET BAKER QUARTET with Chet Baker, voice, Russ Freeman, piano, Carson Smith, bass and Bob Neel, drums
CHET BAKER SINGS, track 10 MUD 52638
ROOTS OF HARD-BOP
1. BOUNCING WITH BUD (1949) Bud Powell Bud Powell with Fats Navarro, trumpet, Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone, Bud Powell, piano, Tommy Potter, bass and Roy Haynes, drums SAME, CD 2, track 9 MUD 58681
This is from a 1949 recording of Bud Powell with Fats Navarro on trumpet, Sonny Rollins on tenor saxophone, Tommy Potter on bass and Roy Haynes on drums. One can see the influence of Bud Powell on the later development of the Clifford Brown-Max Roach Quintet. The tune has an AABA structure with an introduction and a closing tag. Fats Navarro was the most important musical influence on Clifford Brown.
2. UN POCO LOCO (1951)-Bud Powell THE AMAZING BUD POWELL BUD POWELL SAME
This composition is an amazing tour-de-force by Bud Powell and his trio with Curly Russell on bass and the incomparable Max Roach on drums. Powell shows incredible hand independence with the vamp in the left hand and the freely moving improvisations in the right. Notice the unusual “bell pattern” employed by Max Roach on the ride cymbal.
3. NIGHT IN TUNISIA (1951)-Dizzy Gillespie THE AMAZING BUD POWELL VOL. 1 BUD POWELL SAME
This piece became a standard for hard-boppers. This is performed by Bud Powell with his trio with Curly Russell and Max Roach. Notice the dramatic use of space in the breaks in Bud Powell’s solo.
4. DAAHOUD (1955)-Clifford Brown Brownie The Complete EmArcy Recordings of Clifford Brown CLIFFORD BROWN - MAX ROACH QUINTET with Clifford Brown, trumpet, Harold Land, tenor saxophone, Richie Powell, piano, George Morrow, bass and Max Roach, drums MUD 41583
This is a performance by the Clifford Brown - Max Roach Quintet with Harold Land on tenor saxophone, Richie Powell on piano and George Morrow on bass. The tune has an AABA form with a tag.
5. JOY SPRING (1954) Clifford Brown CLIFFORD BROWN – MAX ROACH QUINTET with Clifford Brown, trumpet, Harold Land, tenor saxophone, Richie Powell, piano, George Morrow, bass and Max Roach, drums THE COMPLETE EMARCY RECORDINGS OF CLIFFORD BROWN, Volume 1, CD 2, track 2 MUD 41583
This composition has an AABA form with a modulation in the second A section. The piece combines a challenging harmonic progression with a memorable melody, a compelling formula in the hard-bop school.
6. LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDORED THING (1956)-arranged by Richie Powell SAME, disc 10, cut 14
Sonny Rollins replaces Harold Land on this recording. Notice the metric changes from 5/4 to 6/4 and finally to a fast 4/4 in Powell’s arrangement of this standard.
7. TIME (1956) Richie Powell CLIFFORD BROWN – MAX ROACH QUINTET with Clifford Brown, trumpet, Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone, Richie Powell, piano, George Morrow, bass and Max Roach, drums SAME, V. 3, CD 10, track 4 MUD 41583
This is an expressive ballad vehicle for Clifford Brown written by pianist Richie Powell. Notice the use of modal pedal point and the intricate counterlines designed for Sonny Rollins.
8. THE SCENE IS CLEAN (1956)-Tadd Dameron SAME, disc 10,cut 5
This arrangement by Richie Powell begins with a drum introduction. The bass and the horns follow in interlocking vamps. A moody, other-worldly piano segues into the head. The head has a 32 bar structure but in two varying 16 bar phrases. In characteristic Dameron fashion the harmonic progression camouflages the entrance of the 16 bar phrase forcing the improviser to play through the form.
9. NIGHT IN TUNISIA (1957) - Dizzy Gillespie MORE FROM THE VILLAGE VANGUARD SONNY ROLLINS MU 6533
This is a live trio performance with Sonny Rollins on tenor saxophone, Donald Bailey on bass and Pete La Roca on drums. Rollins could generate a powerful swing without the piano. He incorporates aspects of the Dizzy’s big band arrangement of Night in Tunisia.
10. SONNYMOON FOR TWO (1957) - Sonny Rollins SAME
This features a different trio with Wilbur Ware on bass and Elvin Jones on drums. Elvin would later become the drummer in John Coltrane’s quartet. This early performance of this classic blues-riff tune indicates the power of Elvin Jones’ swing and the freedom in the playing of Sonny Rollins.
11.WITHOUT A SONG (1962)-Youmans-Elescu THE BRIDGE
SONNY ROLLINS MU 22357
Sonny Rollins experimented with piano-less groups including trios with bass and drums. Here he adds guitarist Jim Hall with Bob Crenshaw on bass and Ben Riley on drums. Notice how the group moves fluidly in and out of time.
MILES DAVIS (THE FIFTIES)
1. WALKIN’ (1954) Richard Carpenter MILES DAVIS SEXTET with Miles Davis, trumpet, J.J. Johnson, trombone, Lucky Thompson, tenor saxophone, Horace Silver, piano, Percy Heath, bass and Kenny Clarke, drums MILES DAVIS ALL-STARS, track 1, MUD 52379
This piece is the first recording of a classic of the Hard-Bop period. The composition, popularized by Miles Davis, became a standard Hard-Bop tune. Musicians include Miles Davis, trumpet, J.J. Johnson, trombone, Lucky Thompson, tenor saxophone, Horace Silver, piano, Percy Heath, bass and Kenny Clarke, drums.
2. BAGS GROOVE (1954)-Milt Jackson CD 4, track 1 MUD 74717
This is a group of jazz all-stars with Milt Jackson on vibraphone, Thelonious Monk on piano, Percy Heath and Kenny Clarke. One can almost sense the friction in style between the two masters, Davis and Monk.
3. SOLAR (1954) Miles Davis MILES DAVIS QUINTET with Miles Davis, trumpet, Davey Schildkraut, alto saxophone, Horace Silver, piano, Percy Heath, bass and Kenny Clarke, drums SAME, track 3, MUD 52379
4. FOUR (1956) Miles Davis MILES DAVIS QUINTET with Miles Davis, trumpet, John Coltrane, tenor saxophone, Red Garland, piano, Paul Chambers, bass and Philly Joe Jones, drums WORKIN’, track 2, MUD 25043
This is a recording with the classic quintet with John Coltrane on tenor saxophone, Red Garland on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Philly Joe Jones on drums. This tune was a staple of the Davis repertoire throughout the fifties and sixties.
5. IF I WERE A BELL (1956)-Frank Loesser MILES DAVIS CHRONICLE
MILES DAVIS QUINTET CD 7, track 11 MUD 74717
A typical Davis arrangement of a standard for the quintet. Notice the interaction of pianist Red Garland with Miles Davis.
6. WELL YOU NEEDN’T (1956)-Thelonious Monk MILES DAVIS CHRONICLE MILES DAVIS QUINTET CD 7, track 12 MUD 74717
This is a Miles Davis version of a classic Monk tune. Monkophiles should notice how Miles alters the changes of the tune, reconstructing the bridge and making the A section more modal.
7. IF I COULD WRITE A BOOK (1956)-Hart-Rodgers MILES DAVIS CHRONICLE MILES DAVIS QUINTET CD 8, track 4 MUD 74717
This is another transformation of a show tune. Notice the contrast between Miles and Coltrane in their solos. The rhythm section plays completely differently behind Coltrane when he enters.
8. OLEO (1956)-Sonny Rollins CD 8, track 5 MUD 74717
This Rollins composition employs “I’ve Got Rhythm” changes. This performance has a particularly effective arrangement. It begins with just the trumpet and the bass leading to the dramatic entrance of the piano.
9. TUNE-UP/WHEN LIGHTS ARE LOW (1956) Miles Davis / Benny Carter
COOKIN’ WITH THE MILES DAVIS QUINTET, track 4, MUD 37091
This is an original composition by Miles Davis. Compare this tune to Coltrane’s COUNTDOWN which we will study later.
10. MY FUNNY VALENTINE (1956) Rodgers-Hart SAME
COOKIN’ WITH THE MILES DAVIS QUINTET, track 1, MUD 37091
This is an early version of the standard associated with Miles Davis. Why do you suppose Miles picked this tune to play? Compare this recording with the later Quintet version with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Tony Williams.
11. AIREGIN (1956) Sonny Rollins SAME, track 3, MUD 37091
12. MILESTONES (1958) Miles Davis CD 3, track 3,
The Quintet is joined by alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley. This composition employs modes as a basis for the improvisation. Can you hear the two tonal areas in the tune?
13. ROUND' MIDNIGHT (1958)-Thelonious Monk ROUND ABOUT MIDNIGHT MILES DAVIS QUINTET track 1 MUD 74575
This is the Miles Davis arrangement of the classic Thelonious Monk composition. The basis of this arrangement is in the Dizzy Gilespie Big Band version of the forties. Notice the change in rhythmic character for John Coltrane's solo.
14. THE DUKE (1957) Dave Brubeck (arranged by Gil Evans) MILES DAVIS – GIL EVANS: THE COMPLETE COLUMBIA STUDIO RECORDINGS, Volume 1, CD 1, track 3 MUD 74718
15. BLUES FOR PABLO (1957) Gil Evans SAME, CD 1, track 6
16. NEW RHUMBA (1958) by Ahmad Jamal, THE MEANING OF THE BLUES -Worth-Troupe and LAMENT by J.J. Johnson (1961) (arranged by Gil Evans) SAME, CD 1, tracks 7-9 MUD 74718
Gil Evans arranged these two ballads into a medley with NEW RHUMBA by Ahmad Jamal. Notice how seamlessly Miles Davis' improvisation is integrated into the arrangement. Gil Evans never intrudes as an arranger; he successfully creates a rich orchestral texture yet allows Miles the space he requires for his solos. How do Gil Evans' arrangements of 1958 compare with his earlier efforts on the BIRTH OF THE COOL album of 1948?
17. BYE-BYE BLACKBIRD (1961) LIVE AT THE BLACKHAWK MILES DAVIS QUINTET VOL. 1, CD 2, track 4 MUD 74715
This is a classic performance by Miles Davis’ working band in the early sixties. The band featured Wynton Kelly on piano and Hank Mobley on tenor saxophone. The group played basicly the same repetoire as the earlier quintet. Notice the extraordinary accompaniment by Wynton Kelly. He and Miles had a unique rapport.
18. ALL OF YOU (1961) SAME, VOL. 1, CD 2, track 1
This performance again highlights the fantastic communication in this quintet. Wynton Kelly contributes a wonderful solo filled with melodic and rhythmic imagination.
LISTENING UNIT 4
1. ROUND' MIDNIGHT (1957)-Thelonious Monk THELONIOUS MONK: THE COMPLETE RIVERSIDE RECORDINGS THELONIOUS MONK CD 3, track 7 MUD 44889
This is a solo piano version of Thelonious Monk's signature piece. Compare this version to the Miles Davis arrangement. This piece is one of Thelonious Monk's earliest compositions, dating from an early Cootie Williams recording in 1942. Monk recorded the piece many times in varying arrangements.
2. BRILLIANT CORNERS (1956)-Thelonious Monk
SAME THELONIOUS MONK CD 2, track 6 MUD 44889
This Monk recording features Sonny Rollins on tenor saxophone, Ernie Henry on alto saxophone, Oscar Pettiford on bass and Max Roach on drums. This composition features unusual phrase lengths of 7 bars and the bridge is the A section in double time. The piece is a quirky challenge to the improviser.
3. PANNONICA (1956)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 2, track 5
This piece is a tribute to the Baroness Rothchild, a patron of Monk's and other BE-BOP masters. The composition features Sonny Rollins, Ernie Henry, Oscar Pettiford and Max Roach with Monk on celeste. Monk again abandons the conventional 32 bar form with an additional two bar tag on the final A section.
4. RUBY MY DEAR (1957) Thelonious Monk SAME THELONIOUS MONK CD 5, track 5 MUD 44889
This is a quartet performance of Monk's composition featuring Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone with Wilbur Ware on bass and Art Blakey on drums. Monk's composition serves as an effective vehicle for a master from an earlier era in the music. Monk's music can challenge a tenor giant from the thirties and forties as well as the emerging master John Coltrane.
5. EPISTROPHY (1957)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 5, track 2
This is a recording of the Monk classic with Ray Copeland on trumpet, Gigi Gryce on alto saxophone, John Coltrane and Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophones, Wilbur Ware on bass and Art Blakey on drums. You can actually hear Monk call for a hesitant Coltrane to solo on the piece. Monk again destroys the conventional 8 bar phrase structure in this composition. The first four bars of the A section pivot around Db followed by 8 bars pivoting around Eb followed by 4 bars in Db. After the bridge the tune reverses the structure with 4 bars of Eb followed by 4 bars of Db.
6. MONK'S MOOD (1957)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 3, track 11
This beautifully reflective ballad by Thelonious Monk features John Coltrane on tenor saxophone with Wilbur Ware on bass. Monk originally titled the song THIS IS HOW I FEEL NOW which fits the opening melody.
7. TRINKLE TINKLE (1957)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 5. Track 8
This quartet performance features John Coltrane with Wilbur Ware on bass and Shadow Wilson on drums. Notice how the tune captures Coltrane's style of the time, the so-called "sheets of sound." Coltrane considered Monk a seminal influence on his development. What do you think Coltrane learned from Monk?
8. LIGHT BLUE (1958)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 8, track 4
This is a recording with Johnny Griffin on tenor saxophone, Ahmed-Abdul Malik on bass and Roy Haynes on drums. Johnny Griffin is an important tenor saxophone player who emerged in the fifties. He was known as the most fluent and virtuosic of performers, even surpassing John Coltrane in speed and execution.
9. EVIDENCE (1958)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 8. Track 9
This Monk original is based on the changes of JUST YOU, JUST ME. The piece features a quartet with Johnny Griffin whose dexterity is very evident here.
10. LITTLE ROOTIE TOOTIE (1959)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 10, track 4 MUD 44889
This is a Hall Overton arrangement of Monk's original with 10 players. Featured soloists include Charlie Rouse on tenor saxophone, Phil Woods on alto saxophone, Donald Byrd on trumpet and Pepper Adams on baritone saxophone. Overton transcribes a Monk solo from 1951 and orchestrates the solo for the band. Notice how Overton uses the tuba, french horn and baritone saxophone to approximate Monk's left hand. Monk's stride influence is clearly illuminated by the orchestration.
11. THELONIOUS (1959)-Thelonious Monk SAME CD 10, track 6
This selection is from the same big band session. Here Monk's stride influence is very clear.
12. CRISS-CROSS (1963)-Thelonious Monk THELONIOUS MONK: THE COMPOSER THELONIOUS MONK track 10, MUD 26268
This features Monk's regular group with Charlie Rouse on tenor saxophone, John Ore on bass and Frankie Dunlop on drums.
13. CREPUSCULE WITH NELLIE (1961)-Thelonious Monk SAME, track 11
This is a Thelonious Monk masterpiece with the quartet with Charlie Rouse, John Ore and Frankie Dunlop. Monk somehow creates a melancholy mood without sentimentality. Monk’s gift of surprise always provides and edge to the performance.
LISTENING UNIT 5
JOHN COLTRANE (THE FIFTIES)
1. TENOR MADNESS (1956)-Sonny Rollins TENOR MADNESS
SONNY ROLLINS MUD 24587
This is an early pairing of the two most influential saxophone players of the fifties. How would you compare their styles in 1956? Whitney Balliett of the NEW YORKER wrote in 1958 in that John Coltrane was a “student” of Sonny Rollins. Was this comment entirely absurd? The rhythm section on this recording includes Red Garland on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Philly Joe Jones on drums.
2. BLUE TRANE (1957)-John Coltrane BLUE TRANE
JOHN COLTRANE MUD 34730
This is a blues composition by John Coltrane with a larger ensemble including Lee Morgan on trumpet, Curtis Fuller on trombone, Kenny Drew on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Philly Joe Jones on drums. Coltrane is already a commanding blues player with a style all his own.
3. MOMENT’S NOTICE (1957)-John Coltrane SAME
This piece has the same ensemble which was featured on BLUE TRANE. This is a great example of Coltrane’s harmonic exploration. There is constant motion in the harmony of this composition. Its form is a real challenge to the improviser; there are seldom any resting points. John Coltrane and Lee Morgan are especially successful in negotiating the changes.
4. GOOD BAIT (1958)-Tadd Dameron SOULTRANE JOHN COLTRANE
This is a classic penned by Tadd Dameron featuring John Coltrane with Red Garland, Paul Chambers and Art Taylor on drums. Notice as in MOMENT’S NOTICE Coltrane’s obsession with vertical harmony. In this soaring performance he finds every possible harmonic nuance never losing his rhythmic drive and swing.
5. I WANT TO TALK ABOUT YOU (1958)-Billy Eckstine SAME
This is a ballad by the famous singer Billy Eckstine who led the most important BE-BOP Big Band of the Forties. This ballad was recorded many times by Coltrane over the years. This is the first recording of the tune. John Coltrane was always a compelling soloist on ballads with a well developed lyricism. The “block-chord” chorus by pianist Red Garland recalls the great Errol Garner. There is also a marvelous solo by the great bassist, Paul Chambers.
6. RUSSIAN LULLABY (1958)-Irving Berlin SAME
This is a ferociously up-tempo version of the Irving Berlin tune. Coltrane finds the most unlikely sources for inspiration. Coltrane and Art Taylor trade fours on this song. Can you follow the form?
7. LUSH LIFE (1958)-Billy Strayhorn LUSH LIFE JOHN COLTRANE
This is the classic ballad composed by Strayhorn when he was a mere teenager in Pittsburgh. Coltrane gives perhaps the definitive performance of this masterpiece. The group includes Red Garland on piano and Paul Chambers on bass.
8. COUSIN MARY (1959)-John Coltrane GIANT STEPS
JOHN COLTRANE MUD 39119
This is a blues composition from the GIANT STEPS recording with Tommy Flanagan on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Art Taylor on drums. Coltrane like all other innovators in the evolution of Jazz has a thorough command of the Blues.
9. GIANT STEPS (1959)-John Coltrane SAME
This is a break-through composition by John Coltrane. This is the realization of Coltrane’s harmonic quest. After GIANT STEPS Coltrane was free to explore other areas. The quick harmonic motion of this tune reminds us of Coltrane’s extraordinary command of his instrument. Coltrane’s solo is a masterpiece of vertical harmony. The performers include Tommy Flanagan, Paul Chambers and Art Taylor.
10. COUNTDOWN (1959)-John Coltrane GIANT STEPS
JOHN COLTRANE MUD 39119
This is John Coltrane’s variation of Miles Davis’ TUNE-UP. Coltrane imposes the progression of GIANT STEPS to the comparatively simple progression of the Miles Davis standard. The performing ensemble includes Tommy Flanagan, Paul Chambers and Art Taylor who begins the piece in duet with Coltrane.
11. NAIMA (1959)-John Coltrane SAME
This is an exquisite ballad by John Coltrane with Wynton Kelly on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Jimmy Cobb on drums. This piece has a serene tranquility after the harmonic upheaval of the other compositions on the GIANT STEPS recording. This piece employs shifting harmonies over a static pedal point. This would characterize Coltrane’s later modal explorations.
12. MR. P.C. (1959)-John Coltrane SAME
This is a minor blues by Coltrane dedicated to bassist Paul Chambers. This piece anticipates Coltrane’s modal approach to the blues. The performers include Tommy Flanagan on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Art Taylor on drums.
LISTENING UNIT 6
1. CONGENIALITY (1959)-Ornette Coleman Beauty is a Rare Thing: The Complete Atlantic Recordings ORNETTE COLEMAN
MUD 38721 or The Shape of Jazz to Come Mu 6502
This original composition features Ornette Coleman on alto saxophone, Don Cherry on trumpet, Charlie Haden on bass and Billy Higgins on drums. The composition is structured in contrasting melodic fragments with shifts of tempo. The performers play in rhythmic unison on the head of this piece. How do the improvisers relate to the structure of the composition in this piece?
2. PEACE (1959)-Ornette Coleman SAME
This piece begins with an introduction in the bass. There is a similar sense of contrast in the composition. The creativity of the composition liberates the improviser to explore new areas. Ornette Coleman has a acute understanding of the total effect of his compositions. Each of his pieces provides a unique pathway for the improviser.
3. LONELY WOMAN (1959)-Ornette Coleman SAME
This is a lyrical masterpiece by Ornette Coleman. Notice the contrast in rhythmic feel between the melody stated by Coleman and Cherry, Haden’s ostinato and Billy Higgin’s drum pattern. The interplay of Ornette and Don Cherry is magical. The emotional impact of the haunting melody is even more powerful because of the independence of the rhythmic underpinning.
4. RAMBLIN’ (1959)-Ornette Coleman SAME or Change of the Century Mu 23915 or Mu 32836
This recording features the same band as on THE SHAPE OF JAZZ TO COME. The piece is a blues with a freer structure. The players move effortlessly in and out of the 12 bar structure of the blues. Charlie Haden’s bass riff is reminiscent of a country blues. Coleman’s music is a unity of older, superficially more primitive blues forms with a new free approach to structure and harmony.
5. EMBRACEABLE YOU (1960)-George Gershwin Beauty is a Rare Thing: The Complete Atlantic Recordings MUD 38721
This is a rare example of a Coleman arrangement of a standard tune. Ed Blackwell replaces Billy Higgins on drums. Compare Ornette’s solo with Charlie Parker’s definitive interpretations of the ballad.
6. BLUES CONNOTATION (1960)-Ornette Coleman SAME
This is another blues composition by Ornette Coleman. The group captures the feeling of the blues without maintaining the structure.
7. FREE JAZZ (1960)-Collective Improvisation SAME or Free Jazz
This is the revolutionary recording of Ornette Coleman’s Double Quartet with Ornette Coleman, Don Cherry, Charlie Haden and Billy Higgins in one quartet and Eric Dolphy on bass clarinet, Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, Scott Lafaro on bass and Ed Blackwell in the second quartet. Which players do you think are most confortable in this setting? Does free improvisation work successfully in larger groups?
8. ALL MY LIFE (1971)-Ornette Coleman SCIENCE FICTION
ORNETTE COLEMAN MU 32837
This piece features vocalist Asha Puthli with an ensemble including Gerard Schwarg and Carmon Fornaroto trumpets, Ornette Coleman on alto saxophone, Dewey Redman on tenor saxophone, Charlie Haden on bass and Billy Higgins and Ed Blackwell on drums. The piece employs a structure similar to LONELY WOMAN with a striking contrast between the melody and the rhythmic underpinning. The horns provide typically homophonic support. This is a good example of “harmolodics” in practice with parallel melodic lines in the horns.
9. ROCK THE CLOCK (1971)-Ornette Coleman SAME
This is one of Coleman’s wilder R&B experiments with Ornette Coleman on trumpet and violin, Dewey Redman on musette and tenor saxophone, Charlie Haden on bass and Ed Blackwell on drums. Charlie Haden employs a Wa-Wa pedal on the bass to create the R&B effect as Ornette and Dewey Redman freely improvise over the groove.
10. VOICE POETRY (1975)-Ornette Coleman BODY META
ORNETTE COLEMAN ON TAPE
This is example of Ornette Coleman’s Prime Time group featuring Bern Nix and Charlie Ellerbee on guitars, Jamaaladeen Tacuma on electric bass and Ronald Shannon Jackson on drums. What qualities remain the same and what changes in Ornette’s electric band?
LISTENING UNIT 7
JOHN COLTRANE (MODAL MUSIC)
1. SO WHAT (1959)-Miles Davis KIND OF BLUE
MILES DAVIS SEXTET MUD 39186
This is a Miles Davis composition from the classic recording with Miles Davis on trumpet, Cannonball Adderley on alto saxophone, John Coltrane on tenor saxophone, Bill Evans on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Jimmy Cobb on drums. The piece has a 32 bar form shifting between the two modes of D dorian and Eb dorian. Compare the solos on this piece, particularly Miles and Coltrane. How are their approaches fundamentally different?
2. IMPRESSIONS (1961)-John Coltrane IMPRESSIONS
JOHN COLTRANE QUARTET (ON TAPE)
This is a live recording with John Coltrane's quartet. The piece has the same harmonic structure as SO WHAT, but the intensity level of the performance completely transforms the effect of the piece. The quartet in this recording includes McCoy Tyner on piano, Reggie Workman on bass and Elvin Jones on drums. With Coltrane modes became a vehicle for almost ritualistic expression with Coltrane soaring above the powerful swing of Elvin Jones.
3. MR. DAY (1961)-John Coltrane COLTRANE PLAYS THE BLUES
JOHN COLTRANE QUARTET (ON TAPE)
This is a performance by the quartet with McCoy Tyner on piano, Steve Davis on bass and Elvin Jones on drums. Here Coltrane explores modes and static harmonies in a blues structure. The piece builds from the bass introduction into a rhythmically compelling groove. As with the earlier fascination with GIANT STEPS changes, Coltrane found many applications for modes in his compositions.
4. MY FAVORITE THINGS (1960)-Rodgers and Hammerstein
MY FAVORITE THINGS JOHN COLTRANE MU 6499 or MUD 39450
This is one of Coltrane's earliest performances with the soprano saxophone with McCoy Tyner on piano, Steve Davis on bass and Elvin Jones on drums. It is truly amazing how this tune, from the musical, SOUND OF MUSIC, could be so vividly transformed into a vehicle for the soprano saxophone. Coltrane's exploration of modes and North African influences allowed him the freedom to discover new standard tunes, never before employed in Jazz.
5. SUMMERTIME (1960)-George Gershwin SAME
This is Coltrane's treatment of the Gershwin standard with the Quartet. Coltrane alters the melody to fit a modal structure. The bass does not play the tonic of the tune until the end of the progression. The performance again has the characteristic hard swing of Elvin Jones to propel Coltrane in his improvisation.
6. CHASIN' THE TRANE (1961)-John Coltrane LIVE AT THE VILLAGE VANGUARD JOHN COLTRANE MUD 34762 or MU 5290
This is the John Coltrane Quartet in an impromptu blues performance with Reggie Workman replacing Steve Davis on bass. McCoy Tyner lays out for most of Coltrane's solo as he reduces the blues to its fundamentally rhythmic foundation. Coltrane and Elvin Jones interact almost the way a tabla and a sitar interact in North Indian music or a myrrdgm and a vina in Carnatic music.
7. I WANT TO TALK ABOUT YOU (1963)-Billy Eckstein LIVE AT BIRDLAND JOHN COLTRANE MUD 42748 or MU 6589
This is a performance of one of Coltrane's favorite ballads with Jimmy Garrison as the regular bassist in the Quartet. How do the block chords of McCoy Tyner help shape Coltrane's performance? How is the accompaniment different from the earlier recording with Red Garland?
8. YOUR LADY (1963)-John Coltrane SAME
This is an original composition by John Coltrane featuring the soprano saxophone. The piece is built on a mixolydian mode with a rhythmic drone with the bass and drums. The soprano gave Coltrane a striking contrast to the darker complexities of his tenor playing.
9. CRESCENT (1964)-John Coltrane CRESCENT JOHN COLTRANE QUARTET MUD 41418
This is a beautiful composition by John Coltrane with an unusual form. The piece begins freely, moving through a modal progression. The improvisation within the piece employs an altogether different structure than the piece itself. This gives the composition a sense of form and shape.
10. LONNIE'S LAMENT (1964)-John Coltrane SAME
This is a rather mournful composition by Coltrane which evokes the blues in all its moods.
11. A LOVE SUPREME (1964)-John Coltrane A LOVE SUPREME
JOHN COLTRANE MUD 25256
This is a true masterpiece of John Coltrane's modal period. The piece begins with chanting which evokes a sense of ritual of music as something spiritual beyond the notes. The other movements in the suite build emotionally and structurally on each other. The second movement employs an 8 bar structure and the third movement uses a 12 bar blues form. The composition is truly the culmination of Coltrane's spiritual quest in music.
12. NAIMA (1966)-John Coltrane LIVE AT THE VILLAGE VANGUARD AGAIN JOHN COLTRANE MUD 39332
Compare this later version of NAIMA with the earlier incarnation in 1959 on the GIANT STEPS recording. The personnel in the ensemble have changed with Pharoah Sanders on tenor saxophone, Alice Coltrane on piano, Jimmy Garrison on bass and Rashied Ali on drums. The performance of the piece is much freer without the omnipresent swing of Elvin Jones in the earlier quartet. The piece has evolved from the more conventional but beautiful ballad of 1959 into a lyrical eruption. The theme, rather tender and gentle in the earlier version becomes almost heroic as it descends into and overcomes chaos. Pharoah Sanders’ solos takes us further away from the harmonic world of NAIMA.
13. EXPRESSION (1967)-John Coltrane EXPRESSION
JOHN COLTRANE MUD 39332
This piece extends the musical territory of CRESCENT with a freely moving modal progression. The composition starts within a harmonic progression and moves freely outside the harmony. This was John Coltrane's last recording. The ensemble includes Pharoah Sanders, Alice Coltrane, Jimmy Garrison and Rashied Ali. How did the change in the rhythm section alter Coltrane's musical approach or was change necessary to accommodate Coltrane's evolving direction?
LISTENING UNIT 8
1. PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS (1956)-Charles Mingus
PASSIONS OF A MAN: AN ANTHOLOGY OF HIS ATLANTIC RECORDINGS CHARLES MINGUS MU 23948
This is an early recording of Charles Mingus with his Jazz Workshop featuring Jackie McLean on alto saxophone, J.R. Monterose on tenor saxophone, Mal Waldron on piano, Charles Mingus on bass and Willie Jones on drums. The piece is characteristic of Mingus’ later style with passages of collective improvisation with an extended form. The improviser moves in and out of the song form.
2. BETTER GET IT IN YOUR SOUL (1959)-Charles Mingus
MINGUS AH UM CHARLES MINGUS MUD 37815
This is a larger group recording of this gospel inspired composition by Charles Mingus. The group includes Shafi Hadi on alto saxophone, John Handy on alto saxophone and tenor saxophone, Booker Ervin on tenor saxophone, Willie Dennis and Jimmy Knepper on trombones, Horace Parlan on piano, Charles Mingus on bass and Dannie Richmond on drums. This is one of many compositions by Mingus inspired by the church. Booker Ervin assumes the role of the preacher in this piece complete with supporting hand claps. The solos in this piece employ a blues structure, even though the notated portion of the composition has an AABA form.
3. GOOD-BYE PORK PIE HAT (1959)-Charles Mingus SAME This composition is Mingus’ evocative memorial to Lester Young, the great master of the tenor saxophone. Appropriately, the melody of this beautiful ballad is performed by two tenor saxophones with a solo by John Handy. This ballad is a bold extension of the blues with some unexpected harmonies underpinning the melody.
4. BOOGIE STOP SHUFFLE (1959)-Charles Mingus SAME
This is a further exploration of the blues which begins with what might be a boogie woogie variation. Mingus carefully builds the composition by first adding horn accents and then a be-bop melody. The piece features solos by Jimmy Knepper on trombone, Horace Parlan on piano and Booker Ervin on tenor saxophone. In Charles Mingus’ work the listener perceives the piece as a whole not as a tune with solos. This is a tribute to Mingus’ attention to both musical structure and the natural drama of improvisation.
5. SELF PORTRAIT IN THREE COLORS (1959)-Charles Mingus
This composition by Mingus originally conceived as part of the score of the John Cassavetes film, SHADOWS, has virtually no improvisation except for the tenor saxophone coda at the very end of the piece. This is another clear example of the building block approach Mingus had to constructing his compositions. The piece starts with a melody stated by the tenor saxophone and the alto saxophone; Mingus carefully adds counter-lines with each successive chorus of the tune. The composition builds in complexity and logic with each successive line having its own voice.
6. OPEN LETTER TO DUKE (1959)-Charles Mingus SAME
This composition again features Booker Ervin on tenor saxophone. The music has a narrative quality moving effortlessly through different styles of music. The piece has its own unique structure, beginning with a tenor saxophone solo and evolving into an Ellington-style ballad. Ellington was a profound influence on Charles Mingus’ work, yet Mingus’ music always has his own voice. His music invokes Ellington without merely imitating him.
7. FABLES OF FAUBUS (1960)-Charles Mingus CHARLES MINGUS PRESENTS CHARLES MINGUS MU 16289
This is an explosive version of the Charles Mingus classic with Eric Dolphy on alto saxophone, Ted Curson on trumpet, Charles Mingus on bass and Dannie Richmond on drums. In this quartet version the players actually sing some of the missing counter-lines in the arrangement. Perhaps inspired by Ornette Coleman, Mingus explores the freedom of a group without piano. Eric Dolphy demonstrates his wide range of expression from the lyricism of a Johnny Hodges to a new extension of be-bop of his own invention. This shows the political awareness of Mingus in this searing portrait of an earlier governor of Arkansas.
8. ALL THE THINGS YOU COULD BE BY NOW IF SIGMUND FREUD’S WIFE WAS YOU MOTHER (1960)-Charles Mingus
This is Charles Mingus’ hilarious take-off on the standard ALL THE THINGS YOU ARE, which was a signature standard for Charlie Parker. The piece moves freely in and out of time, speeding up and slowing down as Mingus directs the band. Dannie Richmond and Mingus had an uncanny rapport enabling them to adjust tempi without difficulty. The piece features Eric Dolphy and Ted Curson with Mingus and Richmond.
9. WHAT LOVE? (1960)-Charles Mingus SAME
This is another of Charles Mingus’ extrapolations on standards. This time he has re-invented WHAT IS THIS THING CALLED LOVE? This piece features Eric Dolphy and Ted Curson with Charles Mingus and Dannie Richmond.
10.WEIRD NIGHTMARE (1960)-Charles Mingus MINGUS REVISITED or PRE-BIRD MINGUS CHARLES MINGUS (on tape)
This is a big band recording by Charles Mingus featuring the vocalist Lorraine Cousins. The orchestra includes Ted Curson, trumpet; Jimmy Knepper, trombone; Eric Dolphy and Yusef Lateef, flutes; Joe Farrell and Booker Ervin, saxophones; Paul Bley, piano; Danny Richmond, drums and the composer, Charles Mingus on bass. The piece has some unusually adventurous backgrounds for a vocal ballad. The composition was actually first recorded with Miles Davis in 1953 under the name, SMOOCH. The tenor saxophone solo is by Yusef Lateef.
11. BEMOANABLE LADY (1960)-Charles Mingus SAME
This composition is a ballad vehicle for Eric Dolphy on alto saxophone. Dolphy assumes the role of Johnny Hodges in this big-band arrangement. Eric Dolphy explores the limits of his instrument, playing way beyond the normal range of an alto saxophone. There is some masterful orchestration in this arrangement. Notice the pairing of the low register tenor saxophone with the flute when the melody returns. Mingus mines the landscape of Ellington, but always adds something completely new.
12. BLACK SAINT AND THE SINNER LADY (Tracks A, B + C) (1963) - Charles Mingus BLACK SAINT AND THE SINNER LADY
This is a powerful example of Charles Mingus' more extended work. The work is built on powerful riffs which help unify the piece and give the work its raw power. The ensemble includes Rolf Ericson, Richard Williams trumpets, Quentin Jackson trombone, Don Butterfield tuba, Jerome Richardson soprano, baritone saxophones and flute, Dick Hafer tenor saxophone and flute, Charlie Mariano alto saxophone, Jaki Byard piano, Jay Berliner guitar, Charles Mingus bass and piano and Dannie Richmond on drums. Charles Mingus demonstrates here that he was the most immediate successor to Duke Ellington.
13. MEDITATION ON INTEGRATION (PRAYING WITH ERIC) (1964)-Charles Mingus (ON TAPE)
This is an important extended composition by Charles Mingus with Eric Dolphy on flute and bass clarinet, Johnny Coles on trumpet, Clifford Jordan on tenor saxophone, Jaki Byard on piano, Danny Richmond on drums and Charles Mingus on bass. The beginning of the piece is striking with Eric Dolphy on flute with Mingus on arco bass with the horns providing the rhythmic and harmonic background. The piece evolves through various song structures and tempo changes with modal interludes by each player.
14. ORANGE WAS THE COLOR OF HER DRESS, THEN SILK BLUE (1975)-Charles Mingus CHANGES, VOL.2 CHARLES MINGUS
This ensemble features Jack Walrath on trumpet, George Adams on tenor saxophone, Don Pullen on piano, Dannie Richmond on drums and Charles Mingus on bass. This piece is a most unusual 32 bar tune in an AAB form. The first two A sections are 11 bars long, almost a blues structure followed by a ten bar B section. The piece again features tempo changes and excursions outside the song form.
LISTENING UNIT 9
1. ODE TO CHARLIE PARKER (1960)-Jaki Byard FAR CRY
ERIC DOLPHY MU 6496
This composition by Jaki Byard includes Eric Dolphy on flute, Booker Little on trumpet, Jaki Byard on piano, Ron Carter on bass and Roy Haynes on drums. Eric Dolphy was perhaps the first multi-intrumentalist in Jazz and was certainly the most accomplished flutist to emerge in Jazz. The recording also features the young trumpeter Booker Little who displays his special lyricism here.
2. TENDERLY (1960)-Gross, Laurence SAME
This is a solo alto saxophone performance of the standard. Eric Dolphy was one of the early exponents of solo performance on wind instruments. He served as an important model for later artists like Anthony Braxton, Roscoe Mitchell, James Newton and Oliver Lake. Notice the command Eric Dolphy has of his instrument and the skill he has in accompanying himself. Nothing is missing.
3. MISS ANN (1960)-Eric Dolphy SAME
This is an unusual blues composition by Eric Dolphy in a 14 bar form. Eric Dolphy employs wide melodic leaps in his playing and composing in an altogether original harmonic language. How closely does the composition mirror Eric Dolphy's playing. The ensemble again features Booker Little, Jaki Byard, Ron Carter and Roy Haynes.
4. FIRE WALTZ (1961)-Mal Waldron ERIC DOLPHY AT THE FIVE SPOT ERIC DOLPHY MUD 24580
This is a live performance of Eric Dolphy's legendary quintet with Booker Little, trumpet; Mal Waldron, piano; Richard Davis, bass; and Ed Blackwell, drums. Eric Dolphy had very few performances of his music in America. The Quintet had a short life of only two weeks. Booker Little died tragically later in 1961 at the age of 23.
5. SOMETHING SWEET, SOMETHING TENDER (1964)-Eric Dolphy OUT TO LUNCH ERIC DOLPHY MU 23917 or MU 22786
This is a beautiful ballad by Eric Dolphy featuring Eric on bass clarinet, Richard Davis on bass, Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, Bobby Hutcherson on vibraphone and Tony Williams on drums. The piece has an adventurous structure with the bass clarinet and bass in tandem. Does the use of the vibraphone give Eric Dolphy more melodic freedom than if he had employed a piano?
6. GAZZELLONI (1964)-Eric Dolphy SAME
This composition by Eric Dolphy is dedicated to the Italian flute master, Gazzelloni. The piece is a demonstration of Eric Dolphy's unmatched virtuosity on the flute. Notice the complex interaction of Tony Williams and Richard Davis. They play almost independently from each other, creating irregular rhythmic patterns. Tony Williams at only 18 years of age was already innovative in his use of poly-rhythms. Freddie Hubbard and Bobby Hutcherson complete the ensemble on this recording.
7. YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT LOVE IS (1964) - D. Raye, G. DePaul LAST DATE ERIC DOLPHY MUD 25031
This is Eric Dolphy’s last recording date before his untimely death in Berlin later in the year. This standard popularized by Billie Holiday features Eric Dolphy with a European band including Misha Mengelberg on piano, Jacques Schols on bass and Hans Bennick on drums with Dolphy performing on the flute. Dolphy plays unaccompanied here with incredible virtuosity exploring a world of sounds with the flute. Dolphy often imitated the sounds of birds.
LISTENING UNIT 10
MILES DAVIS (MODES)
1. ALL BLUES (1959)-Miles Davis KIND OF BLUE
MILES DAVIS SEXTET MUD 39186
This is the classic Miles Davis Sextet with Cannonball Adderley on alto saxophone, John Coltrane on tenor saxophone, Bill Evans on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Jimmy Cobb on drums. This is a blues composition which employs modes, principly a mixolydian mode. Notice the striking contrast in styles of Miles Davis, Cannonball Adderley and John Coltrane. All three have incredibly disparate conceptions of improvising. Miles always goes directly to the melody with his spare but always concentrated style; Cannonball has a more vertical approach steeped in the language of Charlie Parker; Coltrane looks at the music in a scalar way, concerned with modes and scales.
2. BLUE IN GREEN (1959)-Bill Evans and Miles Davis SAME
BLUE IN GREEN is a gorgeous ballad which employs shifting modes. The tune has an unusually circular form in a recurring 10 bar structure. The piece appears to have no particular beginning or end as the players negotiate the harmonic progression. Coltrane is especially lyrical in his solo.
3. SO NEAR, SO FAR (1963)-Crombie-D. Green SEVEN STEPS TO HEAVEN MILES DAVIS QUINTET MUD 39202
This is the debut of a classic rhythm section with Herbie Hancock on piano, Ron Carter on bass and Tony Williams on drums. The rhythm section moves seamlessly between 6/8 and 4/4 meters with an unusual rapport. George Coleman is featured on tenor saxophone with Miles Davis. Herbie Hancock contributes a block chord solo in deference to Red Garland, one of his predecessors in the Miles Davis Quintet. The young rhythm section all in their twenties, except for Tony Williams who was 18 years old, brings a fresh intensity to the Quintet. Their facility in shifting meters and easy swing was unparalleled in sixties jazz.
4. JOSHUA (1963)-Victor Feldman SAME
This is another performance by the quintet with George Coleman, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Tony Williams. The piece has a unique form with a 12 bar modal A section and a bridge which shifts between 6/8 and 4/4 time. The rhythm section negotiates these shifts with consummate ease, even swinging ferociously through the 6/8 sections. Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Tony Williams defined the rhythm section of the sixties and beyond.
5. MY FUNNY VALENTINE (1964)-Hart-Rodgers THE COMPLETE CONCERT: 1964 MILES DAVIS MUD 37443 The recordings, MY FUNNY VALENTINE and FOUR AND MORE, are from live performances at Lincoln Center which benefited the NAACP, CORE and SNCC in their voter registration drive in 1964. The quintet at that time included George Coleman on tenor saxophone with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Tony Williams. The performances were remarkable in their total command and assurance. Compare this performance of MY FUNNY VALENTINE with the earlier recording in the fifties. The piece is entirely transformed by the rhythm section's complete freedom with rhythmic and harmonic structures. The performance modulates tempos and meters and the rapport between Ron Carter and Herbie Hancock is truly remarkable.
6. STELLA BY STARLIGHT (1964)-Washington-Young SAME
This is another masterpiece of transformation. This standard tune is completely reworked by Miles Davis and his rhythm section. Herbie Hancock's adventurous reharmonization of the tune gives the piece an expressive power it never had before.
7. WALKIN' (1964)-Richard Carpenter SAME
This is Miles Davis' blues standard taken at a breakneck tempo. Compare the tempo of this performance with the earlier recording on the listening list. With the quintet the old familiar tunes were performed at a progressively faster tempo. This recording features George Coleman on tenor saxophone, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Tony Williams and is taken from the same live performances as the MY FUNNY VALENTINE recording.
8. E.S.P. (1965)-Wayne Shorter E.S.P. MILES DAVIS QUINTET MUD 38595
This is an early recording featuring the tenor saxophone of Wayne Shorter with the quintet. Wayne Shorter was the conceptualist of the ensemble, contributing most of the compositions recorded by the quintet. His compositions were almost always harmonically elaborate with memorable melodies. Shorter often composed in score with every voicing of the piano and bass line pre-conceived. Wayne Shorter is one of the most underestimated composers of the sixties and seventies.
9. FOOTPRINTS (1967)-Wayne Shorter MILES SMILES
MILES DAVIS QUINTET MUD 39394
Wayne Shorter has composed a wonderfully lyrical blues featuring the horns in parallel voicings. Notice the polymetric playing of Tony Williams on this piece as the performance shifts from 6/8 to 4/4 time.
10. FREEDOM JAZZ DANCE (1967)-Eddie Harris SAME
This is Miles Davis' adaptation of an Eddie Harris original. Tony Williams sets up an original almost march-like groove. Miles has inserted spaces in the melody for the percussion which give the piece its ususual character. Both solos by Miles and Wayne Shorter display different approaches to harmonically free playing. The piece has a tonality but no harmonic direction or progression. Miles builds his solo with melodic ideas, employing his characteristic space in his solo. This allows an interchange with the rhythm section. Wayne Shorter also employs space in an intriguing manner. He builds his solo thematically, drawing from fragments and intervals from the tune itself. This is totally original and unusual for saxophone players who typically ignore space and silence as an integral part of their musical conception.
11. NEFERTITI (1967)-Wayne Shorter NEFERTITI
MILES DAVIS QUINTET MUD 39204
This composition by Wayne Shorter features the rhythm section. The horns repeat the melody as the rhythm section varies the background. In effect the traditional roles in the ensemble are reversed with the accompaniment in the foreground.
12. FALL (1967)-Wayne Shorter SAME
This is another gem by Wayne Shorter which features a recurring melodic fragment which is re-harmonized. His intriguing use of space and harmony creates a fascinating texture for the improviser.
13. TOUT DE SUITE (1968)-Miles Davis FILLE DE KILMANJARO MILES DAVIS QUINTET MUD 39203
This is an excellent example of Miles Davis' experiments with extended form. Miles in his autobiography cites Karlheinz Stockhausen as an important influence in this period. The German composer Stockhausen emphasized that a musical composition should be a process rather than merely an end result. In other words, the composition established the parameters of the musical process. In this piece the melody is more extended in its development. The improvisation employs a new structure independent of the melodic or harmonic structure of the piece. This allows the composition to emerge as a coherent whole with the improvisation as an intricate yet formally separate part of the whole. Miles Davis has created a composition which is liberated from the conventional song form.
14. MADEMOISELLE MABRY (1968)-Miles Davis SAME
This piece features some new players in the Miles Davis Quintet, notably Chick Corea who replaces Herbie Hancock and Dave Holland who replaces Ron Carter. The piece is dedicated to Miles Davis' wife at the time, Betty Mabry. The composition again has an intriguing form with a recurring theme played by the rhythm section. The improvisers play over a set of themes and gestures rather than a harmonic progression. This gives the piece its unique character.
LISTENING UNIT 11
1. WALTZ FOR DEBBY (1961)-Bill Evans KNOW WHAT I MEAN?
CANNONBALL ADDERLEY, track 1 MUD 24573
This is a quartet recording of the Bill Evans composition with Cannonball Adderley on alto saxophone, Bill Evans on piano, Percy Heath on bass and Connie Kay on drums. The piece begins with Bill Evans alone stating the melody. When Cannonball enters the piece begins to swing. Bill Evans played with an unencumbered clarity. His melodic ideas were relatively simple and he was very facile with harmonic structures. Evans was an important influence on many of the pianists of the sixties, including Chick Corea and Keith Jarrett.
2. MY FOOLISH HEART (1961)-Young-Washington THE BILL EVANS TRIO AT THE VILLAGE VANGUARD, track 1 MUD 39180
This is a classic recording of the standard with the Bill Evans Trio with Scott LaFaro on bass and Paul Motian on drums. Bill Evans' playing is strikingly spare in this ballad performance.
3. MY ROMANCE (1961)-Rodgers-Hart THE BILL EVANS TRIO AT THE VILLAGE VANGUARD track 2 MUD 39180
This is a performance of a standard often performed by Bill Evans and his trio. The piece features the virtuosity of Scott LaFaro on bass with Paul Motian. The Bill Evans Trio was one of the most influential piano trios of the sixties.
4. MAIDEN VOYAGE (1965)-Herbie Hancock MAIDEN VOYAGE HERBIE HANCOCK track 1, MUD 38739
MAIDEN VOYAGE is the quintessential modal tune. The piece employs modal harmonic changes with an accessible melodic line. The rhythmic repetition gives the piece its character and shape. The ensemble includes Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, George Coleman on tenor saxophone, Ron Carter on bass and Tony Williams on drums. The ensemble of course is the Miles Davis Quintet with Freddie Hubbard in the place of Miles. This composition had a great influence on many of the musicians performing at the time and still is one of the most performed compositions by Herbie Hancock.
5. DOLPHIN DANCE (1965)-Herbie Hancock MAIDEN VOYAGE
HERBIE HANCOCK track 5, MUD 38739
This is another gem from the Herbie Hancock suite with the same performers. The piece has a challenging harmonic structure for the improvisers with an effective melodic design. Hancock's compositions were models for composers of the time combining ingenious structures with melodic simplicity.
6. CHAMELEON (1972)-Herbie Hancock HEADHUNTERS
HERBIE HANCOCK GROUP track 1 MUD 38738
This is a reworking of a Hancock composition from the early sixties. Hancock has transformed his funky composition into an electric-funk masterpiece. The band includes Bennie Maupin on tenor saxophone, Paul Jackson on electric bass, Harvey Mason on drums, Bill Summers on percussion and Herbie Hancock on a plethora of electronic synthesizers and keyboards. Herbie Hancock is always the master of the "groove" in his work. He combines interlocking rhythms in a propulsive way. How has Hancock simplified his compositional style in this piece? In what way is the music more complex?
7. HAVE YOU MET MISS JONES? (1962)-Hart-Rodgers
PRICELESS JAZZ COLLECTION MCCOY TYNER track 4 MUD 55569
This is an early trio performance with McCoy Tyner on piano, Henry Grimes on bass and Roy Haynes on drums. McCoy Tyner and Herbie Hancock are the most influential of the sixties pianists on the young players today. This recording was made shortly after McCoy joined the John Coltrane Quartet. One can hear the influence of the Powell brothers, Bud and Richie and Horace Silver as well as the influence of Coltrane's harmonic concepts. McCoy was already a virtuoso who could adeptly negotiate any harmonic challenge. This performance preceded the coalescence of Tyner's piano style into his characteristic fourth chords and pentatonic scales.
8. PASSION DANCE (1967) McCoy Tyner THE REAL MCCOY
MCCOY TYNER track 1 MUD 52630
This is McCoy Tyner in a Coltrane inspired mode. This piece features Joe Henderson on tenor saxophone, McCoy Tyner on piano, Ron Carter on bass and Elvin Jones on drums. McCoy Tyner continued in the legacy of John Coltrane exploring modal structures with driving rhythms.
9. TONES FOR JOAN'S BONES (1968)-Chick Corea CHICK COREA, HERBIE HANCOCK, KEITH JARRETT, MCCOY TYNER CHICK COREA track 3
This is a trio performance with Chick Corea on piano, Steve Swallow on bass and Joe Chambers on drums. It is evident in this early recording that Chick Corea's chief influences were Bill Evans and McCoy Tyner with some Herbie Hancock influence as well. Corea is a fluent and convincing improviser with versatility and command.
10. LITHA (1968)-Chick Corea INNER SPACE CHICK COREA
track 2 MUD 45186
This is a Chick Corea composition for quintet with Woody Shaw on trumpet, Joe Farrell on tenor saxophone, Steve Swallow on bass and Joe Chambers on drums. The piece has a strong rhythmic drive and an interesting harmonic form.
11. NEFERTITI (1971)-Wayne Shorter CIRCLE-PARIS CONCERT
CHICK COREA AND CIRCLE track 1 MUD 45280
This is Chick Corea's reworking of the Wayne Shorter classic. Corea recorded NEFERTITI several times, including this live performance with Anthony Braxton on alto saxophone, Dave Holland on bass and Barry Altschul on drums. The group moved easily in and out of tempo from structured sections into free improvisation. Anthony Braxton was a profound influence on the music of CIRCLE, bringing the innovations of the AACM into the mainstream.
12. LOVE NO. 1 (1966)-Keith Jarrett CHICK COREA, HERBIE HANCOCK, KEITH JARRETT AND MCCOY TYNER KEITH JARRETT TRIO track 2
This is an early recording of pianist Keith Jarrett with Charlie Haden on bass and Paul Motian on drums. His early playing reveals the influence of Bill Evans and Paul Bley. Jarrett also was one of the earliest pianists to incorporate the innovations of Ornette Coleman into his work. This performance displays Jarrett's easy virtuosity, employing the harmonic idiom of Evans with more melodic freedom.
13. LALENE (1972)-Keith Jarrett FACING YOU KEITH JARRETT
track 3, MUD 45279
This is a composition from Keith Jarrett's first solo piano recording. Solo piano music would be a major part of Jarrett's future career. This piece shows many of the elements that made Jarrett so popular. Unfortunately, it helped define "new-age" piano as well.
LISTENING UNIT 12
THE JAZZ AVANT-GARDE (CECIL TAYLOR)
1. SONG (1955)-Cecil Taylor IN TRANSITION CECIL TAYLOR
This is a composition from Cecil Taylor earliest recording with Steve Lacy on soprano saxophone, Buell Neidlinger on bass and Dennis Charles on drums. One can still hear in this piece the remnants of traditional harmonic and rhythmic form. Cecil Taylor employs "changes" but in a more active manner; Taylor solos with Steve Lacy rather than merely supplying accompaniment.
2. LUYAH! THE GLORIOUS STEP (1958)-Cecil Taylor LOOKING AHEAD!
CECIL TAYLOR track 1 MUD 38944
This is a blues composition in Cecil Taylor's emerging style with Earl Griffith on vibraharp, Buell Neidlinger on bass and Dennis Charles on drums. Again Cecil plays lines and not just chords behind Earl Griffith's solo. Taylor is a virtuosic and enthusiastic blues performer who employs the new found freedom in jazz, yet draws on the pianists of the past. Notice the piano glissando used by Taylor in his solo.
3. EXCURSION ON A WOBBLY RAIL (1958)-Cecil Taylor LOOKING AHEAD!
CECIL TAYLOR track 6 MUD 38944
This is Cecil Taylor's de-construction of the Billy Strayhorn composition, TAKE THE A TRAIN with Earl Griffith, Buell Neidlinger and Dennis Charles. Cecil Taylor was profoundly influenced by the music of Duke Ellington, his composition and probably less acknowledged his piano playing. The piece moves freely in and out of the harmonic structure of the Strayhorn original. Like Ellington, Cecil Taylor has an orchestral approach to the piano, thinking of the instrument not merely as a generator of chords, but as a wealth of sound possibilities.
4. I LOVE PARIS (1959)-Cole Porter IN TRANSITION
CECIL TAYLOR MU 7236
This is Cecil Taylor's de-construction of the famous tune by Cole Porter with Chris White on bass and Rudy Collins on drums. How does Cecil relate to the harmonic structure of the tune?
5. CONQUISTADOR (1960)-Cecil Taylor CONQUISTADOR CECIL TAYLOR
track 1 MUD 45807
This is an early masterpiece by Cecil Taylor with Bill Dixon on trumpet, Jimmy Lyons on alto saxophone, Henry Grimes on bass, Alan Silva on bass and Andrew Cyrille on drums. The piece is multi-thematic with short themes and gestures providing a structure for the improvisation. Cecil Taylor often employs call-and-response as a musical device with the piano acting as the leader. There are contrasting textures for each solo with structured modal interludes.
6. BULBS (1960)-Cecil Taylor INTO THE HOT GIL EVANS
ORCHESTRA MU 6503
This is actually a recording with Cecil Taylor's ensemble sponsored by Gil Evans. The ensemble includes Jimmy Lyons on alto saxophone, Archie Shepp on tenor saxophone, Henry Grimes on bass and Sonny Murray on drums. The piece has a collage effect with a succession of short riffs exhibiting Taylor's R&B influence.
7. UNIT STRUCTURE| AS OF NOW| SECTION (1961)-Cecil Taylor UNIT STRUCTURES CECIL TAYLOR MUD 39469
This ensemble includes Eddie Gale Stevens, Jr. on trumpet, Jimmy Lyons on alto saxophone, Ken McIntyre on bass clarinet, Henry Grimes on bass, Alan Silva on bass and Andrew Cyrille on drums. This piece is also episodic in nature with a number of recurring themes. The composition begins with a texture played inside the piano. The playing is filled with energy as Cecil Taylor controls the flow of the improvisation with the piano. The piano initiates all the transformations of the improvisational texture.
8. ABYSS (FIRST MOVEMENT), PETALS AND FILAMENTS (SECOND MOVEMENT), JITNEY (THIRD MOVEMENT) (1974)-Cecil Taylor SILENT TONGUES CECIL TAYLOR
This is a virtuosic live performance by Cecil Taylor in a solo piano recital. He plays many of the same musical games in a solo performance as he does with his ensemble. Again one can hear the call-and-response textures, the multi-thematic approach with motivic fragments. The musical structure hinges on recurring musical fragments surrounded by awesome improvisational forays. Taylor's classical technique is much in evidence.
1. GHOSTS (1964)-Albert Ayler SPIRITUAL UNITY
ALBERT AYLER MU 6582
This is the anthem of tenor saxophonist Albert Ayler with Gary Peacock on bass and Sonny Murray on drums. The piece combines simple folk elements with high-energy free playing. Ayler explored multi-phonics and sound textures and influenced future players such as, tenor saxophonist David Murray.
2. LOS OLVIDADOS (1965)-Archie Shepp FIRE MUSIC
ARCHIE SHEPP MUD 39656
Archie Shepp is one of the poets of the avant-garde movement, noted for his verbal commentary as well as his playing on the tenor saxophone. This piece is inspired by the Luis Bunuel film of the same title. Archie Shepp and Albert Ayler developed distinctive sounds on their instruments, inspired as much by Coleman Hawkins and Ben Webster as by the modern masters Coltrane and Coleman. The players are Archie Shepp on tenor saxophone, Ted Curson on trumpet, Marion Brown on alto saxophone, Joseph Orange trombone, Reggie Johnson on bass and Joe Chambers on drums.
3. MALCOLM, MALCOLM SEMPER MALCOLM (1965)-Archie Shepp FIRE MUSIC ARCHIE SHEPP MUD 39656
This piece features a poem by Archie Shepp with David Izenzon on bass, J.C. Moses on drums and Archie Shepp on tenor saxophone. The poem is Shepp's tribute to Malcolm X and moves into open sound textures.
4. COLORS (1969)-Pharoah Sanders and Leon Thomas KARMA
PHAROAH SANDERS (ON TAPE)
This composition in retrospect seems like a parody of 60's camp with its simplistic lyrics. Perhaps it is symbolic of the dead-end facing the avant-guard in New York in the seventies and the emergence of new voices from outside who would revitalize the avant-guard. The performers on this piece include Pharoah Sanders on tenor saxophone, singer Leon Thomas, Julius Watkins on horn, Lonnie Liston Smith on piano, Reggie Workman and Ron Carter on bass and Frederick Waits on drums.
LISTENING UNIT 13
1. PURPLE HAZE (1967)-Jimi Hendrix ARE YOU EXPERIENCED?
JIMI HENDRIX EXPERIENCE MU 9499
This is a composition from the first recording of the Jimi Hendrix Experience with Mitch Mitchell on drums and Noel Redding on guitar. Hendrix was certainly the most influential of the Rock artists on the Jazz artists who would create Fusion music.
2. THIRD STONE FROM THE SUN (1967)-Jimi Hendrix SAME
Hendrix had a profound influence on the evolution of the guitar and the exploration of electronic sound with feedback and distortion. This piece is a good example of Jimi Hendrix's experimentation which shattered the boundaries of Rock and popular music.
3. ARE YOU EXPERIENCED? (1967)-Jimi Hendrix SAME
This is yet another example of the riveting playing of Jimi Hendrix. It would be hard to imagine a John McLaughlin, Larry Coryell or Sonny Sharrock without the innovations of Hendrix.
4. BITCHES BREW (1970)-Miles Davis BITCHES BREW
MILES DAVIS MUD 38604
This is the album which really was intended to be a collaboration with Jimi Hendrix but not possible after Hendrix' death. In the albums BITCHES BREW and IN A SILENT WAY Miles incorporated electric keyboards and guitar with John McLaughlin and array of percussion. The concept was to simplify the harmonic and thematic design of the composition to allow for freer interaction particularly among the expanded rhythm section. Miles Davis was influenced by Stockhausen's notion of music as process rather than as a specific product. The result is an expansive composition which evolves over time without the normal closure of a tune. The ensemble includes Wayne Shorter on soprano saxophone, Bennie Maupin on bass clarinet, Chick Corea and Joe Zawinul on electric piano, John McLaughlin on guitar, Dave Holland on bass, Harvey Brooks on fender bass, Lenny White and Jack DeJohnette on drums, and Charles Alias and Jim Riley on percussion.
5. TUTU (1986)-Miles Davis TUTU MILES DAVIS MUD 39004
This is a more recent techno-pop vehicle for Miles Davis with Marcus Miller on bass. How does the tune change Miles Davis' playing?
6. WHAT GAME SHALL WE PLAY TODAY? (1972)-Chick Corea
CRYSTAL SILENCE CHICK COREA AND GARY BURTON
Chick Corea and Gary Burton collaborated on this album of duets. The piece employs a simplified harmonic structure with a rhythmic vamp. This type of composition became the model for "NEW AGE" music of the 80's. What was refreshingly simple became oppressively maudlin.
7. VULCAN WORLDS (1974)-Stanley Clarke WHERE HAVE I KNOWN YOU BEFORE? RETURN TO FOREVER (ON TAPE)
This is a recording of RETURN TO FOREVER with Chick Corea on keyboards, Al DiMeola on guitar, Stanley Clarke on bass and Lenny White on drums. This incarnation of Chick Corea was a stunning contrast to the CIRCLE group earlier in the decade. Chick Corea decided to pursue a wider audience with RETURN TO FOREVER.
8. TEARS (1970) - Wayne Shorter WEATHER REPORT WEATHER REPORT MU 6555
This piece is from the debut recording of Weather Report an important fusion band which emerged after the Bitches Brew recording of Miles Davis. This group featured the compositions and collaboration of Wayne Shorter, the saxophonist with Miles Davis and Joe Zawinul, the pianist principly associated at that time with Cannonball Adderley. Zawinul had composed many of the popular hits by Cannonball including MERCY, MERCY and Shorter had provided most of the compositions for Miles Davis in the second half of the sixties. This group also featured Miroslav Vitous on bass, Alphonse Mouzon on drums and Airto Moreira on percussion. Many of the compositions were created collectively. This piece has the signature of Wayne Shorter.
9. BIRDLAND (1977)-Joe Zawinul HEAVY WEATHER WEATHER REPORT MU 9181
This is a later incarnation of the group WEATHER REPORT with Wayne Shorter, Joe Zawinul and Jaco Pastorius. This piece combines fusion's slickness with a Jazz parody. This is an earlier version of the piece before Quincy Jones' arrangement. The piece has an effective structure characteristic of Joe Zawinul's compositions. The bass has an expanded melodic role in this music with Jaco Pastorius as it had as well with Stanley Clarke in RETURN TO FOREVER.
10. MEETING OF THE SPIRITS (1973)-John McLaughlin
INNER MOUNTING FLAME MAHAVISHNU ORCHESTRA
This is a recording by the MAHAVISHNU ORCHESTRA with John McLaughlin on guitar, Jan Hammer on keyboards, Jerry Goodman on violin, Rick Laird on bass guitar and Billy Cobham on drums. This group was inspired by the electronic innovations of Hendrix with the rhythmic complexities of South Indian music. The music is modal in character with intricate repeating vamps. This piece is relatively straight-forward with a 6/8 meter rather than the 7/4 or 5/4 employed in other compositions. Their style was to establish a strong rhythmic groove with fast contrasting melodic figurations. Billy Cobham was an important drummer who integrated the innovations of Tony Williams and Elvin Jones into a rock idiom.
LISTENING UNIT 14
ANTHONY BRAXTON AND THE AACM
1. THE LITTLE SUITE (1966)-Roscoe Mitchell SOUND ROSCOE MITCHELL SEXTET track 3, MUD 52216
This is an early incarnation of the ART ENSEMBLE OF CHICAGO with Roscoe Mitchell on alto saxophone, clarinet and recorder; Lester Bowie on trumpet, flugelhorn and harmonica; Lester Lashley on trombone and cello; Maurice McIntyre on tenor saxophone; Malachi Favors on bass; and Alvin Fielder on percussion. The piece begins with a "bluesy" harmonica theme but quickly moves in and out of themes and textures. The use of collage and the kaleidoscopic variety of the piece foreshadowed the ritual music dramas of the ART ENSEMBLE, yet despite the disparate thematic material the piece maintains a conceptual unity. Roscoe Mitchell's compositions profoundly influenced many of the "so called downtown avant-garde", including Jon Lurie and John Zorn.
2. NONAAH (1973)-Roscoe Mitchell FANFARE FOR THE WARRIORS THE ART ENSEMBLE OF CHICAGO track 3, MUD 46445
Pianist Muhal Richard Abrams is a guest artist on this composition by Roscoe Mitchell. The ART ENSEMBLE included Roscoe Mitchell and Joseph Jarman on saxophones and woodwinds, Lester Bowie on trumpet and flugelhorn, Malachi Favors on bass and Don Moye on drums. This composition was performed in many configurations from solo saxophone to this ensemble rendition. The piece employs repeating melodic cells which alternate with improvisational interludes.
3. BARNYARD SCUFFEL SHUFFEL (1973)-Lester Bowie FANFARE FOR THE WARRIORS THE ART ENSEMBLE OF CHICAGO track 2, SAME This is a gut-bucket, R&B inspired blues by Lester Bowie demonstrating a less abstract side of the ART ENSEMBLE.
4. FANFARE FOR THE WARRIORS (1973)-Joseph Jarman FANFARE FOR THE WARRIORS THE ART ENSEMBLE OF CHICAGO
Track 4 SAME
Joseph Jarman has composed a high energy ritual for the ART ENSEMBLE. Notice the persistent vamp played by Malachi Favors which is almost inaudible under all the horns but somehow holds this piece together. It is important that Malachi plays even when he isn't necessarily heard.
5. (840)/ REALIZE/ 44M(2) (1968)-Anthony Braxton THREE COMPOSITIONS OF NEW JAZZ ANTHONY BRAXTON track 1, MUD 65136
This features an ensemble of Anthony Braxton on saxophone and clarinet, Leo Smith on trumpet and flugelhorn, and Leroy Jenkins on violin and viola. All the musicians also play "little instruments," a trademark of AACM practice which were either percussion instruments, instruments designed by the musicians themselves or wooden flutes or recorders. The AACM was a pioneer in the exploration of sound and the construction of compositions built solely on sound. Braxton, Smith and Jenkins were able to sustain an extended improvisation in a more abstract vein than the ART ENSEMBLE experiments.
6. SIDE ONE: CUT ONE (1976)-Anthony Braxton CREATIVE ORCHESTRA MUSIC 1976 ANTHONY BRAXTON track 1. MU 55446d Anthony Braxton has composed a parody of the Big Band with the rhythmic and textural gestures of the band without the usual pitch relationships. The solos are by Bruce Johnstone on baritone saxophone, Cecil Bridgewater on trumpet and Anthony Braxton on alto saxophone. It is exciting to hear Braxton's lines translated to a chorus of saxophones with clashing brass. The piece concludes as repeating riffs dissipate into a held chord.
7. SIDE ONE: CUT TWO (1976)-Anthony Braxton CREATIVE ORCHESTRA MUSIC 1976 ANTHONY BRAXTON track 2, MU 55446d
This composition features a more open-ended approach to improvisation with solos by Dave Holland on bass, Richard Teitelbaum on synthesizer, George Lewis on trombone, Muhal Richard Abrams and Frederic Rzewski on pianos, and Anthony Braxton and Roscoe Mitchell. The orchestra enters with a series of chords and a collective improvisation follows with an acute awareness of space and its possibilities.
8. SIDE TWO: CUT TWO (1976)-Anthony Braxton CREATIVE ORCHESTRA MUSIC 1976 ANTHONY BRAXTON track 5, MU 55446d
The piece is similar to Roscoe Mitchell's NONAAH in its construction of interlocking repeating lines. Braxton employs the orchestra in timbral blocks, trumpets vs. trombones vs. reeds. Solos are by Kenny Wheeler on trumpet, Muhal Richard Abrams on piano and Anthony Braxton on contra-bass saxophone.
9. SIDE ONE: CUT THREE (1976)-Anthony Braxton CREATIVE ORCHESTRA MUSIC 1976 ANTHONY BRAXTON track 3, MUD 55446d
Anthony Braxton has written a hilarious parody of march music, not surprising after his tenure in Korea in military bands. The piece employs repeating textures under the improvisations by Leo Smith on trumpet, George Lewis on trombone, Anthony Braxton on clarinet and Jon Faddis on piccolo trumpet. The repeating textures enable Braxton to escape the predictability and closure implicit in the march form.
LISTENING UNIT 15:
CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS AND CALIFORNIA
1. DOGON A.D. (1972)-Julius Hemphill DOGON A.D
JULIUS HEMPHILL track 1, MU 55517d
This is an early recording by Julius Hemphill with Baikida E.J. Carroll on trumpet, Abdul Wadud on cello and Philip Wilson on drums. In this piece Hemphill demonstrates his command of the R&B idiom bridging R&B with avant-garde Jazz. Julius Hemphill performed in Ike Turner's bands in St. Louis. Hemphill approaches this fusion with an unusual rawness and originality.
2. AT HARMONY (1988)-Julius Hemphill JULIUS HEMPHILL BIG BAND
JULIUS HEMPHILL track 1, MU 27692d
Julius Hemphill has created this work for big band with solos by Frank Lacy, trombone; Marty Ehrlich, soprano saxophone; Julius Hemphill, alto saxophone; John Stubblefield, tenor saxophone and Ronnie Burrage on drums. Here Julius explores a more conventional swing idiom. Does this piece have any similarity to Braxton's earlier efforts of the seventies? To what extent do larger ensembles make the music more conventional and less exploratory?
3. FOR BILLIE (1988)-Julius Hemphill JULIUS HEMPHILL BIG BAND
JULIUS HEMPHILL track 4, SAME
This is a beautiful ballad by Hemphill featuring the composer on alto saxophone with additional solos by Jack Wilkins on guitar and Vincent Chauncey and John Clark on french horn. The block chord writing featuring the flutes and muted brass is reminiscent of the Gil Evans arrangements for Miles Davis.
4. WHILE PUSHING DOWN TURN (1975)-Oliver Lake HEAVY SPIRITS
OLIVER LAKE track 1, MUD 46490
This is a piece by Hemphill's St. Louis contemporary Oliver Lake with Oliver Lake on alto saxophone, Olu Dara on trumpet, Donald Smith on piano, Stafford James on bass and Victor Lewis on drums. The composition begins with a piano solo and moves into a vamp under a free melody. The use of the ostinato is somewhat similar to the Art Ensemble composition FANFARE FOR THE WARRIORS, but Lake has developed his own individual style.
5. HEAVY SPIRITS (1975)-Oliver Lake HEAVY SPIRITS
OLIVER LAKE track 3, SAME
This ballad by Oliver Lake features Stafford James on bass. The piece employs a repeating harmonic progression. How does the harmony of this piece compare with earlier compositions of modal jazz? Is the harmony more or less complex?
6. SONG OF HUMANITY (1976)-Leo Smith SONG OF HUMANITY NEW DALTA AHKRI track 1, MU 55579d
This is a blues composition by trumpeter Leo Smith with Oliver Lake on alto saxophone, Anthony Davis on piano, Wes Brown on bass and Paul Maddox (Pheeroan akLaff) on drums. The piece has an interesting structure beginning with a bass solo and ending with a piano solo. This is somewhat typical of Smith's compositions which seldom feature the entire ensemble playing at the same time.
7. THE DEVIL IS ON THE LOOSE AND DANCIN WITH THE MONKEY (1988)-Henry Threadgill nextwavenewmusicamerica10thanniversary
HENRY THREADGILL SEXTETT track 5, MUD 32885
The Henry Treadgill Sextett featured Henry Threadgill on alto saxophone, Ted Daniels on trumpet, Bill Lowe on bass trombone, Dierdre Murray on cello, Fred Hopkins on bass and Newman Baker and Reggie Nicholson on drums. Threadgill has a wonderful sense of structure and drama. Notice how he sets up the bass solo after the band builds in intensity. Threadgill's music is always clever and unpredictable with an abundance of humor.
8. EVENING PRAYER (1985)-John Carter CASTLES OF GHANA
JOHN CARTER track 1, MUD 55568
John Carter was a true master on the clarinet and a gifted composer. This composition was written for a large ensemble including Carter on clarinet, Terry Jenoure on violin and voice, Marty Ehrlich on bass clarinet, Bobby Bradford on cornet, Baikida Carroll on trumpet, Benny Powell on trombone, Richard Davis on bass and Andrew Cyrille on drums. On this piece Carter vividly creates an atmosphere of drones and subtle dissonance. The piece evolves slowly with occasional improvisational interjections. Here the improvisation functions as an embellishment to the compositional form.
9. FLOWERS FOR ALBERT (1976)-David Murray FLOWERS FOR ALBERT
DAVID MURRAY track 1, MUD 55568
This early recording by David Murray helped establish him on the New York scene. The piece celebrates Albert Ayler, an important, yet neglected figure in Free Jazz. Murray drew inspiration not only from Ayler but from older, pre-bop musicians such as Ben Webster. Murray's grasp of the older and new styles made him a leading figure in "so-called" loft-jazz. The quartet features David Murray on tenor saxophone, Olu Dara on trumpet, Fred Hopkins on bass and Philip Wilson on drums.
10. THE FAST LIFE (1980) - David Murray DAVID MURRAY OCTET
DAVID MURRAY track 1, MUD 45288
This is a performance by the David Murray Octet with David Murray on tenor saxophone, Henry Threadgill on alto saxophone, Olu Dara on trumpet, Lawrence "Butch" Morris on cornet, George Lewis on trombone, Anthony Davis on piano, Wilbur Morris on bass and Steve McCall on drums. This up-tempo composition moves in and out of time. The performers have the freedom to move in and out of the structure.
11. HOME (1981)-David Murray HOME DAVID MURRAY OCTET
DAVID MURRAY track 1, MUD 45284
This ballad by David Murray features Henry Threadgill on bass flute with a piano introduction by Anthony Davis. The music evokes the tradition of Duke Ellington and Charles Mingus, two of the most important influences on this generation of Jazz composers. The octet includes David Murray on bass clarinet, Henry Threadgill on bass flute, Olu Dara on trumpet, Butch Morris on cornet, George Lewis on trombone, Anthony Davis on piano, Wilbur Morris on bass and Steve McCall on drums.
12. ADDIS ABABA (1981)-James Newton AXUM JAMES NEWTON
track 4, MU 16135
This is a recording by flute virtuoso James Newton. The composition employs a multi-track layering of flute textures with flute, alto flute and bass flute. The piece is built on rhythmic fragments which repeat and are compiled.
13. CHOIR (1981)-James Newton AXUM track 5, (SAME)
Here James Newton employs the technique of multi-phonics, producing chords on the flute by singing and playing at the same time. Newton expanded the technical possibilities of the flute and is the major flutist in Jazz after Eric Dolphy.
14. JUNETEENTH (1982)-James Newton I'VE KNOWN RIVERS
ANTHONY DAVIS, JAMES NEWTON AND ABDUL WADUD track 1,
This is a James Newton work for trio with Anthony Davis on piano and Abdul Wadud on cello. The piece is inspired by Thelonious Monk and Count Basie but is realized in a surprising instrumentation more associated with chamber music. The piece swings throughout but the pitch relationships are not so traditional.
LISTENING UNIT 16:
1. OF BLUES AND DREAMS (1975)-Anthony Davis SONG OF HUMANITY
NEW DALTA AHKRI track 5, MU 55579d
This is a quintet recording with Leo Smith on trumpet, Oliver Lake on alto saxophone, Anthony Davis on piano, Wes Brown on bass and Paul Maddox (Pheeroan akLaff) on drums. The piece is a rhapsodic extension of the blues which is structured in sections. Improvisations are separated by notated structures which help determine the mood and the character of the improvisation.
2.WAYANG NO. 2 (1981)-Anthony Davis EPISTEME
ANTHONY DAVIS track 1, MUD 45283
This composition employs a rhythmic structure juxtaposing 5/4, 7/4, 4/4 and 9/4. The repeating motives provide a complex polyrhythmic structure. The players are free to embellish the rhythmic motives. The piece concludes with a long melody in the bass, trombone, and bass clarinet. The ensemble EPISTEME includes Dwight Andrews on flute and bass clarinet, George Lewis on trombone, Shem Guibbory on violin, Abdul Wadud on cello, Rick Rozie on bass, Jay Hoggard on vibraphone, Warren Smith on marimba and glockenspiel, Pheeroan akLaff on drums and Anthony Davis on piano.
3. CLONETICS (1983)-Anthony Davis HEMISPHERES ANTHONY DAVIS
track 5 MU 25626d
This piece is for ten players and employs longer rhythmic phrases. The repetitions create an antiphonal texture pitting one part of the band against the other. The players include Marty Ehrlich on flute, J.D. Parran on clarinet and contrabass clarinet, Leo Smith on trumpet, George Lewis on trombone, Shem Guibbory on violin, Eugene Friesen on cello, Rick Rozie on bass, Dave Samuels on vibraphone and marimba, Pheeroan akLaff on drums and Anthony Davis on piano. HEMISPHERES was conceived as a work for dance and was performed as a score for Molissa Fenley and Dancers.
4. X: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MALCOLM X (excerpt from Act I) (1986)-Anthony Davis with libretto by Thulani Davis X; THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MALCOLM X Orchestra of St. Lukes conducted by William Curry with Episteme, featuring Timothy D. Price as Malcolm Little (child), Hilda Harris as Ella and Thomas Young as Street. CD 1, tracks 7-9 MUD 33814
This is an excerpt from Act, scene 2 of the opera X: The Life and Times of Malcolm X. Malcolm Little is abandoned by his mother and rescued by his half-sister Ella. Street introduces him to the “Life.”
5. X: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MALCOLM X (Malcolm’s Aria) (1986)-Anthony Davis with libretto by Thulani Davis X; THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MALCOLM X Orchestra of St. Lukes conducted by William Curry with Episteme, featuring Eugene Perry as Malcolm (Detroit Red) CD 1, track 12 MUD 33814
6. X: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MALCOLM X (Act II, scene 1, ‘Malcolm, who have you been,” “We Have Been Blind” and “Allahu-Akbar”) (1986)-Anthony Davis X; THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MALCOLM X Orchestra of St. Lukes conducted by William Curry with Episteme, featuring Thomas Young as Elijah Muhammad, Eugene Perry, as Malcolm X and Herbert Perry as Reginald X
CD 2, tracks 1-3 MUD 33814
Malcolm Little joins the Nation of Islam and takes the name, Malcolm X.
7. TANIA, scenes 5 and 6 (1992, recorded 1998)-Anthony Davis with libretto by Michael-John LaChiusa EPISTEME conducted by Rand Steiger featuring Cynthia Aaronson-Davis as Patty/Tania, Avery Brooks as Cinque with Gay Anna Santerre, Jana Campbell-Ellsworth, Priti Gandhi. Carol Plantamura and Philip Larson as THE ARMY (SLA) CD 1, tracks 6-18. MUD 55091
PATTY is abducted by the Symbionese Liberation Army and held in a closet, blindfolded and bound.
8. TANIA, scene 15 “There was once a time” (1992, recorded 1998)-Anthony Davis with libretto by Michael-John LaChiusa EPISTEME conducted by Rand Steiger featuring Thomas Young as DAD/FIDEL, Julie Randall-Osborn, as BETTY FORD/MOM and David Lee Brewer as CHE/HUSBAND CD 2, track 12
PATTY/TANIA imagines FIDEL CASTRO, as her father, romantically lined to BETTY FORD, her mother. FIDEL reminisces about love and revolution in the good, old days.
LISTENING UNIT 17:
ECLECTICISM AND NEW DIRECTIONS
4. ONE FOOT (1982)-Oliver Lake JUMP UP OLIVER LAKE
track 8, MU 5580d
This composition by Oliver Lake is obviously inspired by Reggae or Ska music. The intention is to create dance music which is accessible yet enables some freedom in the improvisation. The group JUMP UP included Oliver Lake on alto and tenor saxophones, Jerome Harris on guitar, Alphonia Tims on guitar, Frank Abel on organ, Pheeroan akLaff on drums, Billy Grant on bass and Jarawa on percussion
5. RHYTHM PEOPLE (1990)-Steve Coleman RHYTHM PEOPLE
STEVE COLEMAN AND FIVE ELEMENTS track 1, MUD 55525
Steve Coleman attempted and succeeded at a new merger of avant-garde Jazz with Hip-Hop. The piece employs the rhythmic idiom of Hip-Hop with the melodic and structural invention of the composer. Coleman uses repetition with long repeating rhythmic patterns in the melody as well as the underpinnings of the bass. Musicians include Steve Coleman on alto saxophone, James Weidman on keyboards, David Gilmore on guitar, Reggie Washington on bass and Marvin "Smitty" Smith on drums.
6. NO CONSCIENCE (1990)-Steve Coleman RHYTHM PEOPLE
STEVE COLEMAN AND FIVE ELEMENTS track 3, MUD 55525
Here the Hip-Hop influence is even more evident with a rap by Steve Coleman. The rhythm of the rap is most unusual if you compare Coleman's version with more conventional street rap. I'm not sure if Steve Coleman is truly convincing as a rap artist but the musical results are original and exciting.
7. SPILLANE (1987)-John Zorn SPILLANE JOHN ZORN
track 1, MUD 29830
John Zorn applies the technique of collage to music. He collects diverse musical styles and juxtaposes them without development or preparation. The styles range from the tawdry to the surreal from a stripper's blues to taped sound effects. Here he draws on the world of Mickey Spillane and detective fiction.
8. BLUE MINOR (TAKE ONE) (1987)-Sonny Clark NEWS FOR LULU JOHN ZORN, GEORGE LEWIS AND BILL FRISSELL track 9, MUD 43374
John Zorn not only mined the esoteric sound world of movies and cartoons but he also collected and studied the works of the Hard-Bop masters. Here he transcribes a piece by pianist Sonny Clark in an unusual combination of alto saxophone, trombone and guitar. George Lewis on trombone and Bill Frissell on guitar are extraordinary in their ability to improvise collectively with Zorn. The piece becomes something quite different than what Sonny Clark originally intended.
9. WHEN KABUYA DANCES (1989)-Geri Allen TWYLIGHT
GERI ALLEN track 1, MUD 46507
This composition features Geri Allen on piano with Jaribu Shahid on bass, Tani Tabbal on drums and Sadiq Bey on percussion. Geri Allen is a rhythmic virtuoso who is one of the most important composer-pianists in Jazz today.
10. A WALTZ FOR ELLEN (1991)-Don Byron TUSGEGEE EXPERIMENTS
DON BYRON track 1, MUD 46309
Don Byron is a true virtuoso on the clarinet who incorporates a diverse range of influences in his style. He draws significantly from the Klezmer tradition for inspiration. This is a solo performance from his first recording as a leader.
11. FRAILACH JAMBOREE (1992)-Mickey Katz (arr. by Don Byron)
DON BYRON PLAYS THE MUSIC OF MICKEY KATZ track 2, MUD 46307
Here the Klezmer influence is much more apparent in Byron's adaptations of the music of Mickey Katz. Katz was known for his parodies which were in both Yiddish and English. He was a vocalist as well as a virtuoso on the clarinet. The ensemble on the recording includes Don Byron on clarinet, J.D. Parran on woodwinds, Mark Feldman on violin, Dave Douglas on trumpet, Josh Roseman on trombone, Uri Caine on piano, Steve Alcott on bass and Richie Schwarz on drums. Byron and Feldman are featured in the solos.
12. EPILOGUE: TEARS (1992)-Don Byron DON BYRON PLAYS THE MUSIC OF MICKEY KATZ track 16 MUD 46307
Here Byron's Klezmer influence is quite apparent but the work is very much his own creation. Byron is able to draw on outside influence yet he always maintains his own voice.
13. AIRPLANE (Track 14) (1993)-George Lewis CHANGING WITH THE TIMES
GEORGE LEWIS track 5, MUD 34882
These pieces revolve around a monologue written by George Lewis with George Lewis, trombone; Douglas Ewart, Dijerdu; Mary Oliver, viola and voice; Peter Gonzales Jr., percussion; and Bernard Mixon, speaking voice.
14. VOYAGER DUO 1 (1993) - George Lewis VOYAGER
track 1, MUD 34885
In this composition George Lewis has created a real-time computer system which responds and performs with the improvisor. The system is named Voyager and enables the computer to interact. This selection is a duet with the computer and the composer on trombone. Can a computer improvise?